(The Hindu)- After Paris, keep the heat on - In order to have a chance of limiting temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius, we need suitable technologies to make low-carbon transitions in development right away. • Now that the Paris Conference of the Parties (COP) meet is long over, countries need to concentrate on global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which need to peak soon and go to zero by mid-century if there is to be a chance of preventing average temperatures from rising more than 1.5 degrees Celsius above the level of pre-industrial times. • Many countries, including India, have a stated expectation that the country’s Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) targets can be met only if there is technological and financial support. • Technology transfer may include one or more of the following kinds of processes: a transfer of manufacturing methods, skills, knowledge, supporting finance, and facilitation through institutional arrangements that enable such transfers. Technology transfer has been considered to be critical from the beginning of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and is part of the Convention under Article 4.5. • Innovation and transfer of technologies are essential if we want rapid shifts to renewable energy systems worldwide. For example, commercially available crystalline silicon solar panels are on average about 15 per cent efficient. • If India and other developing countries had access to these technologies, they could potentially leapfrog to an advanced stage of renewables, using less land area than currently needed. This does not mean disregarding intellectual property rights (IPR). But support for licensing fees or some such arrangement through financing could allow developing countries to not have to reinvent technologies that the world already has access to. • Similarly, hybrid (petrol and electric) vehicles have been available in the U.S. for over a decade now, but are still not in the Indian market, even though they could enable a doubling of efficiency and vastly lower tailpipe emissions at a reasonable cost. • In many States, the transport departments hesitate to purchase electric buses because of the prohibitive cost, mainly because of the battery cost. • For instance, the Bureau of Energy Efficiency gave meticulous attention to the dissemination of compact fluorescent lamps. • It undertook a series of measures to enhance penetration, including large-scale procurement by the government, to ensure markets to manufacturers and, as a result, improved system-wide efficiencies. • Similarly, novel business models undertaken by the government to promote Light Emitting Diode (LED) bulbs have resulted in a rapid decline of prices from Rs. 310 to Rs. 69 per bulb. • In the energy sector, India’s needs include highly efficient renewables, better storage technologies, smart grids, clean public transport, efficient para-transit modes such as autorickshaws, and improved efficiencies in micro, small and medium industries which employ large numbers of people. • The Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) and the Technology Executive Committee were set up under the Technology Mechanism in COP-16 in 2010. These were meant to facilitate technology transfer by providing information and technical assistance and fostering collaboration among experts through their network. • COP-21 adopted the ‘Joint annual report of the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network’. • Under the Paris deal, there will be a framework to provide guidance for the technology mechanism, provide enhanced action on technology development and assess technologies ready for transfer. A link between financial and technology mechanisms has also been established, which should allow for collaboration in research and development. Whether this will go as far as India wanted in providing financial support to deal with IPR barriers in the future is not entirely clear.

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