A fifth trend that affects research is the globalization of science. Todays research happens in many locations, with many partners. For example, IBM has built a medical device research facility in Japan so that they can tailor products to the local market. Microsoft has placed its R&D; unit in Cambridge, England to have access to the research in computer science at a leading university with a European perspective. This is different from outsourcing, where the goal is to do business more cheaply. The globalization of R&D; is a richer concept, where the goal is to enhance the quality and scope of research by being in multiple locations. A recent paper in the American Scientist stated that scientists in all countries, including developing countries, gain considerable benefit from collaborating with scientists around the world. Creating international partnerships and networks is one of the goals of the Millennium Science Institutes. International collaboration also benefits researchers in the developed world, who need the talented colleagues and new points of view found in other nations. In a broader sense, the developed world urgently needs to encourage faster development of small economics to help narrow the gap between nations. There are large challenges that await us as we enter the new Millennium. We need a higher level of interaction between disciplines, but there are still significant barriers to interdisciplinary research. In the mathematics community, for example, we have a tradition of relative isolation. We are not only isolated internally within our sub fields, but from other fields of science and certainly from nonacademic areas especially the private sector. Its important to build more bridges not only within institutions, but also between them. For example, the cultures of academic research and the private sector are very different, so that few mathematics students consider careers in industry. In the United States, some 80 percent of new doctoral mathematicians anticipate academic positions. And yet many promising opportunities are found in fields where industry is very active, such as bioinformatics and communications technology. Traditional structure of universities works against interdisciplinary collaboration. The existence of physically separated departments of applied mathematics and pure mathematics has perpetuated a narrow view about which kinds of mathematics can or should be applied. This view has limited the application of all of mathematics to important practical problems. In conclusion, it is essential for institutions, supporting agencies, and all of us to understand the importance as well as the difficulties of interdisciplinary research, and to recognize that sustained support is needed to develop excellence. This requires good balance in research portfolios, with special attention to long-term programs.

1. An appropriate title for the passage would be
A. Linear model to a dynamic model.
B. Disciplinary to interdisciplinary research.
C. Study of complex systems
D. Globalization and the diffusion of knowledge.
E. Knowledge management a new paradigm.

2. The globalization of research and development sets all of the following goals except
A. quality enhancement B. scope of research
C. local needs D. access to local knowledge
E. cost effectiveness

3. The author cites the instance of relative isolation in mathematics community primarily in order to
A. point out factors that hinder interdisciplinary research.
B. show the lack of communication between mathematicians in developing and underdeveloped countries.
C. expostulate the difference between the original subject and subsidiaries.
D. discuss the extend to which private sectors outsource information from governmental undertakings.
E. propose new methods to bring together the different branches of mathematics.

4. The author is of the opinion that a broader view of mathematics wouldve contributed to which of the following?
A. Lack of differentiation between the sub-fields of mathematics.
B. 80% job placements in private sectors such as bio-informatics and communication technology.
C. Finding solutions for practical problems where in mathematical models apply.
D. To unify the diverse cultures of academic research and the private sector.
E. Many PhDs in mathematics opting for careers in applied mathematics.

5. Which of the following reflects the authors view of knowledge creation and dissemination?
A. Secularist B. Particularistic C. Eclectic D. Pragmatic E. Dogmatic