PASSAGE Ecosystems provide people with a variety of goods and services; food, clean water, clean air, flood control, soil stabilization, pollination, climate regulation, spiritual fulfilment and aesthetic enjoyment, to name just a few. Most of these benefits either are irreplaceable or the technology necessary to replace them is prohibitively expensive. For example, potable fresh water can be provided by desalinating sea-water, but only at great cost. The rapidly expanding human population has greatly modified the Earth’s ecosystems to meet their increased requirements of some of the goods and services, particularly food, fresh water, timber, fiber and fuel. These modifications have contributed substantially to human well being and economic development. The benefits have not been equally distributed. Some people have actually been harmed by these changes. Moreover, short-term increases in some ecosystem goods and services have come at the cost of the long-term degradation of others. For example, efforts to increase the production of food and fiber have decreased the ability of some ecosystems to provide clean water, regulate flooding and support biodiversity.

Q.1 With reference to the passage, consider the following statements. Expanding human population has an adverse effect on :
1.	Spiritual fulfillment
2.	Aesthetic enjoyment
3.	Potable fresh water
4.	Production of food and fiber
5.	Biodiversity
Which of the statements given above are correct ?
a.	1, 2 and 3 only
b.	2, 4 and 5 only
c.	3 and 5 only
d.	1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Q.2 The passage mentions that “some people have actually been harmed by these changes”. What does it imply ?
1.	The rapid expansion of population has adversely affected some people:
2.	Sufficient efforts have not been made to increase the production of food and fiber.
3.	In the short term some people may be harmed, but in the long term everyone will benefit from modifications in the Earth’s ecosystems.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?
a.	1 only
b.	2
c.	1 and 3
d.	None of the statements given above

Q.3 With reference to the passage, consider the following statements:
1.	It is imperative to modify the Earth’s ecosystems for the well being of mankind.
2.	Technology can never replace all the goods and services provided by ecosystems.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a.	1 only
b.	2 only
c.	Both 1 and 2
d.	Neither 1 nor 2


1. C
2. A
3. D