FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS : Indian constitution enumerates Fundamental rights given to its citizen in Part III and as per Supreme court order in Keshavananda Case, our legislature is competent to amend it(art 368) subject to certain safeguards and should pass test of reasonableness in restrictions proposed in amendment. Article 13(2) says that ” The state shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights conferred by this Part(III) and any law made in contravention of this clause shall, to the extent of the contravention, be void. Article 31A, 31B, 31C and 31D are exceptions to the operations of fundamental rights. Of these, Arts 31A and 31C are exceptions to the FR enumerated in articles 14(equality before law) and 19(freedom of expression(a), assembly(b), forming union(c), move freely throughout country (d),settling in any part of country(e), practicing any profession(g) ); this means that any law falling under the ambit of Art 31A (eg. a law for agrarian reforms) or Art 31C( a law for the implementation of any of directive principles contained in part IV of the constitution), can not be invalidated by any court on the ground that it contravenes any of the FR guaranteed by art 14 and 19. Art 31B, offers almost complete exception to all the FR in part III. If any enactment included in the 9th Schedule, which is to be read along with art 31B, then such an enactment shall be immune from constitutional invalidity on the ground of contravention of FR. But shall be open to challenge on the ground of damage to the basic structure of the constitution. Limitations upon the state are imposed by the other provision of constitution and these limitations give rise to corresponding rights to the individual to enforce them in a court of law if the executive or the legislature violated any of them. Art 265 says that “no tax shall be levied or collected except authority of law. This provision confers a right upon individual not to be subjected to arbitrary taxation by the executive. Art 300A also belong to same category. Similarly art 301 says that “subject to the provisions of this part, trade, commerce and intercourse throughout India shall be free.” Constitution classifies the FR under seven groups as follows: • Right to equality (13,14,15,16) • Right to particular freedom(19,20,21,22) • Right against exploitation( 17,23,24) • Right to freedom of religion(25-29) • Cultural and education rights(30) • Right to property(now not part of part III) • Right to constitutional remedies(32) Art 15(protection from discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste, place of birth or sex), art 16( equality of opportunity in matters of public employment, art 19 and art 30 (educational and cultural rights of minorities) are available only to citizen of country. Whereas Art 14( equality before law and equal protection of law), art 20 (protection in respect of conviction against ex post facto laws, double punishment and self-incrimination), art 21( protection of life), art 23( right against exploitation), freedom of religion (25), freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any religion (27) and freedom to attendance at religious instruction of worship in state educational institutions(28) are conferred to any individual on Indian soil-citizen or foreigner. Rights mentioned in art 14, 19,21 are available against the State. In case of violation of such rights by individuals, the ordinary legal remedies may be available but not the constitutional remedies. There are certain rights that are available not only against state but also against private individuals eg art 15(2)(equality in regard to access to and use of places of public resort), art 17(untouchability), art 23(prohibition of trafficking in human beings. But these provisions in part III are not self executory, that is to say, these articles are not directly enforceable they would be indirectly enforceable only if some law is made to give effect to them and such law is vilolated.