National Institute of Open schooling (NIOS) : NIOS provided access to sustainable and learner-centric quality school education, skill upgrading and training through open and distance learning and ensures convergence of open schooling organisations, resulting in an inclusive learning society, Human resource development, national integration and global understanding. It has aprox 16 lakh learners on roll. NCERT • apex resource organization of govt in the field of school education • It advises and assists the ministry of HRD, and departments of Education in States and UTs in formulation and implementation of their policies and major programs in the field of education, particularly for qualitative improvement of school education. • It undertakes programs related to research development training extension,, international cooperation, publication and dissemination of educational information. • Acts as major agency for implementing the bilateral cultural exchange programs with other countries in the field of school education.